Polish Political Science Yearbook
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Archive  /  Polish Political Science Yearbook 45 (2016)


Authors:
Aleksandra Gliszczyńska–Grabiasa
Grażyna Baranowskaa
a  Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland)


Title:
The European Court of Human Rights on Nazi and Soviet Past in Central and Eastern Europe

Source:
Polish Political Science Yearbook, volume 45 (2016), p. 117–129.

DOI:
10.15804/ppsy2016009

Full paper:
http://www.marszalek.com.pl/yearbook/docs/45/ppsy2016009.pdf


Abstract:
The article demonstrates how references to Nazi and Soviet past are perceived and evaluated by the European Court of Human Rights. Individual cases concerning Holocaust and Nazism, which the Court has examined so far, are compared here to judgments rendered with regard to Communist regime. The article proves that the Court treats more leniently state interference with freedom of expression when memory about Nazism and Holocaust is protected than when a post–Communist state wants to preserve a critical memory about the regime. The authors of the article agree with the attitude of the Court which offers a wide margin of appreciation to states restrictively treating references to Nazism and Holocaust, including comparisons to the Holocaust, Nazism or fascism used as rhetorical devices. At the same time they postulate that other totalitarian systems should be treated by the Court equally.


Keywords:
ECtHR; European Court of Human Rights; ECHR; European Convention on Human Rights; memory laws



ECtHR:
  • Handyside v. the United Kingdom, no. 5493/72, judgment of 7 December 1976
  • B.H, M.W, H.P and G.K. v. Austria, no. 12774/87, Commission’s inadmissibility decision of 12 October 1989
  • Nachtmann v. Austria, no. 36773/97, Commission’s inadmissibility decision of 9 September 1998
  • Schimanek v. Austria, no. 32307/96, inadmissibility decision of 1 February 2000
  • Wabl v. Austria, no. 24773/94, judgment of 21 March 2000
  • Garaudy v. France, no. 65831/01, inadmissibility decision of 24 June 2003
  • Scharsach and News Verlagsgesellschaft mBH v. Austria, no. 38384/98, judgment of 13 November 2003
  • Ždanoka v. Latvia, no. 58278/00, judgment of 17 June 2004
  • Partidul Comuniştilor (Nepeceristi) and Ungureanu v. Romania, no. 46626/99, judgment of 3 February 2005
  • Ždanoka v. Latvia, no. 58278/00, Great Chamber judgment of 16 March 2006
  • Dyuldin and Kislov v Russia, no. 25968/02, judgment of 31 July 2007
  • Bodrožić v. Serbia, no. 32550/05, judgment of 23 June 2009
  • Hoffer and Annen v. Germany, no. 397/07 and 2322/07, judgment of 13 January 2011
  • Fratanoló v. Hungary, no. 29459/10, judgment of 3 November 2011
  • PETA v. Germany, no. 43481/09, judgment of 8 November 2012
  • Perinçek v. Switzerland, no. 27/08510, judgment of 17 December 2013
  • Maciejewski v Poland, no. 34447/05 judgment of 13 January 2015
References:
  • Belavusau U. (2015). “Memory Laws and Freedom of Speech: Governance of History in European Law”, In Koltay A. (eds.), Comparative Perspectives on Fundamentals of Freedom of Speech, Wolters Kluwer, pp. 537–558.
  • Belavusau U. (2014. February 13). Armenian Genocide v. Holocaust in Strasbourg: Trivialisation in Comparison [blog comment]. Retrieved from: http://verfassungsblog.de/armenian–genocide–v–holocaust–in–strasbourg–trivialisation–in–comparison/.
  • Buratti A., (2013) “Histories, Traditions and Contexts in the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights”. In Repetto (eds.), The Constitutional Relevance of the ECHR in domestic and European Law, Intersentia, pp. 173–188.
  • Buyse A. (2011) “The Truth, the Past, and the Present. Article 10 ECHR and Situation of Transition”. In Buyse A., Hamilton M, (eds.) Transitional Jurisprudence and the ECHR, Cambridge University Press, pp. 131–150.
  • Flauss J.–F., (2006) “L’histoire dans la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme” , Revue trimestrielle des droits de l’homme 65/2006, pp 5–22.
  • Geyer M., Fitzpatrick S. (eds.) (2009). Beyond Totalitarianism: Stalinism and Nazism Compared, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gliszczyńska–Grabias A. (2014) “Memory Law or Memory Loss? Europe in Search of Its Historical Identity through the National and International Law”, Polish Yearbook of International Law, 34, pp. 161–186.
  • Gliszczyńska–Grabias A. (2016) Communism Equals or Versus Nazism? Europe’s Unwholesome Legacy in Strasbourg, East European Politics and Societies, 30, pp. 74–96.
  • Heinze E. (2016) “Beyond ‘Memory Laws’: Towards a General Theory of Law and Historical Discourse”. In Belavusau U., Gliszczyńska–Grabias A. (eds.) Law and Memory: Addressing Historical Injustice by Law, Cambridge University Press (forthcoming).
  • Kamiński I.C. (2010a). “Historical Situations in the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg”. Polish Yearbook of International Law, 30, pp. 9–60.
  • Kamiński I (2010b). Ograniczenia swobody wypowiedzi dopuszczalne w Europejskiej Konwencji Praw Człowieka. Analiza krytyczna. Warsaw: Wolters Kluwer.
  • Loytomaki S. (2014). Law and the Politics of Memory. Confronting the Past. New York: Routledge.
  • Neumann K., Thompson J. (2015). Historical Justice and Memory. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Rosenstiel F. (2000), From One Council of Europe to Another: a Pan–European Trajectory, Justice Magazine 24, pp. 21–24.
  • Sierp. A. (2014). History, Memory, and Trans–European Identity: Unifying Divisions. New York and London: Routledge.
  • Snyder T. (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. New York: Basic Books.
  • Snyder T. (2015). “European Mass Killing and European Commemoration”. In V. Tismaneanu, B.C. Iacob (eds.) Remembrance, history, and justice. Coming to Terms with Traumatic Pasts in Democratic Societies (p. 23–43). New York: Central European University Press.
  • Sweeney J.A. (2013), The European Court of Human Rights in the Post–Cold War Era: Universality in Transition, New York: Routledge.





~~~
Polish Political Science Yearbook
Volume 45 of 2016
~~~

Editorial
Arkadiusz Żukowski


REMEMBRANCE AND POLITICAL TRANSITION

Remembrance, Identity Politics and Political Transitions:
A Comparative Study

Joanna Marszałek–Kawa & Patryk Wawrzyński

Significance of the Social Vision of Great People
in Times of Political Transition

Konrad Wyszkowski

Cultural War and Reinventing the Past in Poland and Hungary:
The Politics of Historical Memory in East-Central Europe

Attila Ágh

Securitization of Past: Analysis of the Katyń Issue in the Context of EU Integration
Olga Sebina

The Unfinished Revolution? The Communist Party of Bohemia
and Moravia in the Post–Communist Reality

Marcin Czyżniewski

Post–Yugoslav Collective Memory:
Between National and Transnational Myths

Magdalena Rekść

Thatcherism Rejected: Scottish Political Myth of Margaret Thatcher
Tomasz Czapiewski

Sites of Memory in Chile and Georgia: Comparative Aspects
Joanna Marszałek–Kawa & Anna Ratke–Majewska

The European Court of Human Rights and Dealing with Nazi and Soviet Past in Central and Eastern Europe: the Special Case of the Holocaust
Aleksandra Gliszczyńska–Grabias & Grażyna Baranowska

Decommunisation of the Public Space in Post-Euromaidan Ukraine
Antonina Kozyrska

South African Post–Apartheid
Transitional Remembrance Policy (1994–1999)

Patryk Wawrzyński & Alicja Stańco–Wawrzyńska




THE STATE OF DEMOCRACY IN POLAND

The State of Democracy in Poland and Europe
Lech Wałęsa

The Role of NGOs in the Development of Societies and Overcoming
the Consequences of Crises: Case Studies of Poland and Russia

Elena V. Kucheryavaya

Compensation Liability for Damages Incurred while Exercising Public Authority: a Basic Pillar of Democratic State Ruled by Law
Agata Cebera & Aleksander Wróbel

Political Parties and Trade Unions in the Post-Communist Poland:
Class Politics that Have Never a Chance to Happen

Paweł Kamiński & Patrycja Rozbicka

The 2015 Elections to the Senate of the Republic of Poland
Krystyna Leszczyńska

Major Dilemmas and Increasing Dysfunctions
of the Polish Local Government Model on the Basis of an Electoral Law and Metropolitan Act

Beata Słobodzian

Shaping Public Space by the Local Community:
Development of Legal Mechanisms

Elżbieta Kocowska–Siekierka




POLITICAL THEORY

Peace Science – Orientation and Reorientation
Cheng Liu & Egon Spiegel

Fundamentalism in the Light of Selected Psychological Concepts
Anna Zasuń

The Aristotelian Criticism of the Liberal Foundations of Modern State
Marcin Gajek




INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

The Consequences of the Nagorno–Karabakh War for Azerbaijan and Undeniable Reality of Khojaly Massacre: A View from Azerbaijan
Shamkhal Abilov & Ismayil Isayev

Ping–Pong Diplomacy and Its Legacy in the United States
Michał Marcin Kobierecki

The American Military Strategy to Combat the ‘Islamic State’ in Iraq and Syria: Assumptions, Tactics and Effectiveness
Ewelina Waśko–Owsiejczuk

Member States as Strategy-Maker or Strategy-Taker? Analysing Polish Involvement in the Development of the EU Global Strategy
Monika Sus




POLITICS IN THE POSTMODERN WORLD

Political Dimension of Welsh Identity after Devolution: Fact or Fiction?
Bartłomiej H. Toszek

Right to the City as a New Paradigm
within the Concept of Human Security

Agnieszka Szpak




OPINIONS & REPORTS

International Law and the Nagorno–Karabakh War:
Opinion on Political Aspects

Sadir Surkhay Mammadov

The New Journalism: an Attempt at the Model Reconstruction
Iwona Hofman

The Political Leadership Section of the Polish Political Science Association
Maciej Hartliński

Experiencing Asia
Agnieszka Turska–Kawa, Rafał Glajcar & Waldemar Wojtasik

Debating Rapa Nui in Poland
Joanna Siekiera

Debating the Electoral Law in Poland
Jagoda Wojciechowska




REVIEWS

Introducing Polish History to Understand Poland’s Present
Marcin Czyżniewski

An Alternative for the International Order: The Chinese Perspective
Magdalena Łagiewska

Rebalancing of power. The case of China’s global strategy
Mikołaj Lisewski

The Polish Perspective on Japanese Politics and Society
Natalia Gburzyńska

The Identity of Security Studies
Tomasz Czapiewski

Can Poland Respond to the Terrorist Menace?
Alicja Stańco–Wawrzyńska

Europeanization and Poland’s Foreign Policy: the First Decade
Wojciech Michnik



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